The database server keeps track of direct dependencies. A direct dependency is when one object directly references another object in its definition. The database server uses direct dependency information to determine indirect dependencies as well. For example, suppose View A references View B, which in turn references Table C. In this case, View A is directly dependent on View B, and indirectly dependent on Table C.
The SYSDEPENDENCY system view stores dependency information. Each row in the SYSDEPENDENCY system view describes a dependency between two database objects. See SYSDEPENDENCY system view.
You can also use the sa_dependent_views system procedure to return a list of views that are dependent on a given table or view. See sa_dependent_views system procedure.