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SQL Anywhere 11.0.1 » SQL Anywhere Server - SQL Reference » Using SQL » SQL functions » SQL functions (P-Z)


VAR_POP function [Aggregate]

Computes the statistical variance of a population consisting of a numeric-expression, as a DOUBLE.

Syntax 1
VAR_POP( numeric-expression )
Syntax 2
VAR_POP( numeric-expression ) OVER ( window-spec )
window-spec : see Syntax 2 instructions in the Remarks section below
  • numeric-expression   The expression whose population-based variance is calculated over a set of rows. The expression is commonly a column name.




This function converts its argument to DOUBLE, performs the computation in double-precision floating point, and returns a DOUBLE as the result.

The population-based variance (s2) of numeric-expression (x) is computed according to the following formula:

s2 = (1/N) * SUM( xI - mean( x ) )2

This variance does not include rows where numeric-expression is NULL. It returns NULL for a group containing no rows.

Syntax 2 represents usage as a window function in a SELECT statement. As such, elements of window-spec can be specified either in the function syntax (inline), or in conjunction with a WINDOW clause in the SELECT statement. See the window-spec definition provided in WINDOW clause.

For more information about using window functions in SELECT statements, including working examples, see Window functions.

See also
Standards and compatibility
  • SQL/2003   SQL foundation feature (T611) outside core SQL.


The following statement lists the average and variance in the number of items per order in different time periods:

SELECT YEAR( ShipDate ) AS Year,
    QUARTER( ShipDate ) AS Quarter,
    AVG( Quantity ) AS Average,
    VAR_POP( quantity ) AS Variance
FROM SalesOrderItems
GROUP BY Year, Quarter
ORDER BY Year, Quarter;
Year Quarter Average Variance
2000 1 25.775148 203.9021...
2000 2 27.050847 225.8109...
... ... ... ...