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SQL Anywhere 11.0.1 (Français) » SQL Anywhere Server - Programming » SQL Anywhere Data Access APIs » SQL Anywhere embedded SQL

 

Embedded SQL data types

To transfer information between a program and the database server, every piece of data must have a data type. The embedded SQL data type constants are prefixed with DT_, and can be found in the sqldef.h header file. You can create a host variable of any one of the supported types. You can also use these types in a SQLDA structure for passing data to and from the database.

You can define variables of these data types using the DECL_ macros listed in sqlca.h. For example, a variable holding a BIGINT value could be declared with DECL_BIGINT.

The following data types are supported by the embedded SQL programming interface:

  • DT_BIT   8-bit signed integer.

  • DT_SMALLINT   16-bit signed integer.

  • DT_UNSSMALLINT   16-bit unsigned integer.

  • DT_TINYINT   8-bit signed integer.

  • DT_BIGINT   64-bit signed integer.

  • DT_UNSBIGINT   64-bit unsigned integer.

  • DT_INT   32-bit signed integer.

  • DT_UNSINT   32-bit unsigned integer.

  • DT_FLOAT   4-byte floating point number.

  • DT_DOUBLE   8-byte floating point number.

  • DT_DECIMAL   Packed decimal number (proprietary format).
    typedef struct TYPE_DECIMAL {
      char array[1];
    } TYPE_DECIMAL;

  • DT_STRING   Null-terminated character string, in the CHAR character set. The string is blank-padded if the database is initialized with blank-padded strings.

  • DT_NSTRING   Null-terminated character string, in the NCHAR character set. The string is blank-padded if the database is initialized with blank-padded strings.

  • DT_DATE   Null-terminated character string that is a valid date.

  • DT_TIME   Null-terminated character string that is a valid time.

  • DT_TIMESTAMP   Null-terminated character string that is a valid timestamp.

  • DT_FIXCHAR   Fixed-length blank-padded character string, in the CHAR character set. The maximum length, specified in bytes, is 32767. The data is not null-terminated.

  • DT_NFIXCHAR   Fixed-length blank-padded character string, in the NCHAR character set. The maximum length, specified in bytes, is 32767. The data is not null-terminated.

  • DT_VARCHAR   Varying length character string, in the CHAR character set, with a two-byte length field. The maximum length is 32765 bytes . When sending data, you must set the length field. When fetching data, the database server sets the length field. The data is not null-terminated or blank-padded.
    typedef struct VARCHAR {
       unsigned short int len;
       char               array[1];
    } VARCHAR;

  • DT_NVARCHAR   Varying length character string, in the NCHAR character set, with a two-byte length field. The maximum length is 32765 bytes. When sending data, you must set the length field. When fetching data, the database server sets the length field. The data is not null-terminated or blank-padded.
    typedef struct NVARCHAR {
       unsigned short int len;
       char               array[1];
    } NVARCHAR;

  • DT_LONGVARCHAR   Long varying length character string, in the CHAR character set.
    typedef struct LONGVARCHAR {
     a_sql_uint32 array_len;  /* number of allocated bytes in array */
     a_sql_uint32 stored_len; /* number of bytes stored in array
                               * (never larger than array_len) */
     a_sql_uint32 untrunc_len;/* number of bytes in untruncated expression
                               * (may be larger than array_len) */
     char  array[1];          /* the data */
    } LONGVARCHAR, LONGNVARCHAR, LONGBINARY;

    The LONGVARCHAR structure can be used with more than 32767 bytes of data. Large data can be fetched all at once, or in pieces using the GET DATA statement. Large data can be supplied to the server all at once, or in pieces by appending to a database variable using the SET statement. The data is not null-terminated or blank-padded.

    For more information, see Sending and retrieving long values.

  • DT_LONGNVARCHAR   Long varying length character string, in the NCHAR character set. The macro defines a structure, as follows:
    typedef struct LONGVARCHAR {
     a_sql_uint32 array_len;  /* number of allocated bytes in array */
     a_sql_uint32 stored_len; /* number of bytes stored in array
                               * (never larger than array_len) */
     a_sql_uint32 untrunc_len;/* number of bytes in untruncated expression
                               * (may be larger than array_len) */
     char  array[1];          /* the data */
    } LONGVARCHAR, LONGNVARCHAR, LONGBINARY;

    The LONGNVARCHAR structure can be used with more than 32767 bytes of data. Large data can be fetched all at once, or in pieces using the GET DATA statement. Large data can be supplied to the server all at once, or in pieces by appending to a database variable using the SET statement. The data is not null-terminated or blank-padded.

    For more information, see Sending and retrieving long values.

  • DT_BINARY   Varying length binary data with a two-byte length field. The maximum length is 32765 bytes. When supplying information to the database server, you must set the length field. When fetching information from the database server, the server sets the length field.
    typedef struct BINARY {
      unsigned short int len;
      char array[1];
    } BINARY;

  • DT_LONGBINARY   Long binary data. The macro defines a structure, as follows:
    typedef struct LONGVARCHAR {
     a_sql_uint32 array_len;  /* number of allocated bytes in array */
     a_sql_uint32 stored_len; /* number of bytes stored in array
                               * (never larger than array_len) */
     a_sql_uint32 untrunc_len;/* number of bytes in untruncated expression
                               * (may be larger than array_len) */
     char  array[1];          /* the data */
    } LONGVARCHAR, LONGNVARCHAR, LONGBINARY;

    The LONGBINARY structure may be used with more than 32767 bytes of data. Large data can be fetched all at once, or in pieces using the GET DATA statement. Large data can be supplied to the server all at once, or in pieces by appending to a database variable using the SET statement.

    For more information, see Sending and retrieving long values.

  • DT_TIMESTAMP_STRUCT   SQLDATETIME structure with fields for each part of a timestamp.
    typedef struct sqldatetime {
     unsigned short year; /* for example 1999 */
     unsigned char month; /* 0-11 */
     unsigned char day_of_week; /* 0-6 0=Sunday */
     unsigned short day_of_year; /* 0-365 */
     unsigned char day; /* 1-31 */
     unsigned char hour; /* 0-23 */
     unsigned char minute; /* 0-59 */
     unsigned char second; /* 0-59 */
     unsigned long microsecond; /* 0-999999 */
    } SQLDATETIME;

    The SQLDATETIME structure can be used to retrieve fields of DATE, TIME, and TIMESTAMP type (or anything that can be converted to one of these). Often, applications have their own formats and date manipulation code. Fetching data in this structure makes it easier for a programmer to manipulate this data. Note that DATE, TIME, and TIMESTAMP fields can also be fetched and updated with any character type.

    If you use a SQLDATETIME structure to enter a date, time, or timestamp into the database, the day_of_year and day_of_week members are ignored.

    See:

  • DT_VARIABLE   Null-terminated character string. The character string must be the name of a SQL variable whose value is used by the database server. This data type is used only for supplying data to the database server. It cannot be used when fetching data from the database server.

The structures are defined in the sqlca.h file. The VARCHAR, NVARCHAR, BINARY, DECIMAL, and LONG data types are not useful for declaring host variables because they contain a one-character array. However, they are useful for allocating variables dynamically or typecasting other variables.

DATE and TIME database types

There are no corresponding embedded SQL interface data types for the various DATE and TIME database types. These database types are all fetched and updated using either the SQLDATETIME structure or character strings.

For more information, see GET DATA statement [ESQL] and SET statement.