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SQL Anywhere 11.0.1 (Français) » SQL Anywhere Server - SQL Reference » Using SQL » SQL statements » SQL statements (A-D)

 

BEGIN statement

Use this statement to group SQL statements together.

Syntax
[ statement-label : ]
BEGIN [ [ NOT ] ATOMIC ]
   [ local-declaration; ... ]
   statement-list
   [ EXCEPTION [ exception-case ... ] ]
END [ statement-label ]
local-declaration :
 variable-declaration
| cursor-declaration
| exception-declaration
| temporary-table-declaration
variable-declaration :
DECLARE variable-name data-type
exception-declaration :
DECLARE exception-name EXCEPTION
FOR SQLSTATE [ VALUE ] string
exception-case :
 WHEN exception-name [, ... ] THEN statement-list
| WHEN OTHERS THEN statement-list
Parameters
  • local-declaration   Immediately following the BEGIN, a compound statement can have local declarations for objects that only exist within the compound statement. A compound statement can have a local declaration for a variable, a cursor, a temporary table, or an exception. Local declarations can be referenced by any statement in that compound statement, or in any compound statement nested within it. Local declarations are not visible to other procedures that are called from within a compound statement.

  • statement-label   If the ending statement-label is specified, it must match the beginning statement-label. The LEAVE statement can be used to resume execution at the first statement after the compound statement. The compound statement that is the body of a procedure or trigger has an implicit label that is the same as the name of the procedure or trigger.

    For a complete description of compound statements and exception handling, see Errors and warnings in procedures and triggers.

  • ATOMIC clause   An atomic statement is a statement executed completely or not at all. For example, an UPDATE statement that updates thousands of rows might encounter an error after updating many rows. If the statement does not complete, all changes revert back to their original state. Similarly, if you specify that the BEGIN statement is atomic, the statement is executed either in its entirety or not at all.

Remarks

The body of a procedure or trigger is a compound statement. Compound statements can also be used in control statements within a procedure or trigger.

A compound statement allows one or more SQL statements to be grouped together and treated as a unit. A compound statement starts with the keyword BEGIN and ends with the keyword END.

Permissions

None.

Side effects

None.

See also
Standards and compatibility
  • SQL/2003   Persistent Stored Module feature.

Example

The body of a procedure or trigger is a compound statement.

CREATE PROCEDURE TopCustomer (OUT TopCompany CHAR(35), OUT TopValue INT)
BEGIN
   DECLARE err_notfound EXCEPTION FOR
      SQLSTATE '02000';
   DECLARE curThisCust CURSOR FOR
      SELECT CompanyName, CAST(
            sum( SalesOrderItems.Quantity *
            Products.UnitPrice ) AS INTEGER) VALUE
      FROM Customers
            LEFT OUTER JOIN SalesOrders
            LEFT OUTER JOIN SalesOrderItems
            LEFT OUTER JOIN Products
      GROUP BY CompanyName;
   DECLARE ThisValue INT;
   DECLARE ThisCompany CHAR( 35 );
   SET TopValue = 0;
   OPEN curThisCust;
   CustomerLoop:
   LOOP
      FETCH NEXT curThisCust
         INTO ThisCompany, ThisValue;
      IF SQLSTATE = err_notfound THEN
         LEAVE CustomerLoop;
      END IF;
      IF ThisValue > TopValue THEN
         SET TopValue = ThisValue;
         SET TopCompany = ThisCompany;
      END IF;
   END LOOP CustomerLoop;
   CLOSE curThisCust;
END;