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SQL Anywhere 11.0.1 » SQL Anywhere Server - SQL Reference » Using SQL » SQL statements » SQL statements (A-D)



Use this statement to create a user-defined SQL procedure in the database. To create external procedure interfaces, see CREATE PROCEDURE statement (external procedures). To create web services procedures, see CREATE PROCEDURE statement (web services).

CREATE [ OR REPLACE | TEMPORARY ] PROCEDURE [ owner.]procedure-name 
( [ parameter, ... ] )
[ RESULT ( result-column, ... ) | NO RESULT SET ]
compound-statement | AT location-string 
parameter :
  parameter-mode parameter-name data-type [ DEFAULT expression ]
parameter-mode : IN 
| OUT 
result-column : column-name data-type
  • CREATE PROCEDURE   You can create permanent or temporary (TEMPORARY) stored procedures. You can use PROC as a synonym for PROCEDURE.

    Parameter names must conform to the rules for other database identifiers such as column names. They must be a valid SQL data type. For a list of valid data types, see SQL data types.

    Parameters can be prefixed with one of the keywords IN, OUT, or INOUT. If you do not specify one of these values, parameters are INOUT by default. The keywords have the following meanings:

    • IN   The parameter is an expression that provides a value to the procedure.

    • OUT   The parameter is a variable that could be given a value by the procedure.

    • INOUT   The parameter is a variable that provides a value to the procedure, and could be given a new value by the procedure.

    When procedures are executed using the CALL statement, not all parameters need to be specified. If a default value is provided in the CREATE PROCEDURE statement, missing parameters are assigned the default values. If an argument is not provided in the CALL statement, and no default is set, an error is given.

    SQLSTATE and SQLCODE are special OUT parameters that output the SQLSTATE or SQLCODE value when the procedure ends. The SQLSTATE and SQLCODE special values can be checked immediately after a procedure call to test the return status of the procedure.

    The SQLSTATE and SQLCODE special values are modified by the next SQL statement. Providing SQLSTATE or SQLCODE as procedure arguments allows the return code to be stored in a variable.

    Specifying CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE creates a new procedure, or replaces an existing procedure with the same name. This clause changes the definition of the procedure, but preserves existing permissions. You cannot use the OR REPLACE clause with temporary procedures. Also, an error is returned if the procedure being replaced is already in use.Specifying CREATE TEMPORARY PROCEDURE means that the stored procedure is visible only by the connection that created it, and that it is automatically dropped when the connection is dropped. Temporary stored procedures can also be explicitly dropped. You cannot perform ALTER, GRANT, or REVOKE on them, and, unlike other stored procedures, temporary stored procedures are not recorded in the catalog or transaction log.

    Temporary procedures execute with the permissions of their creator (current user), or specified owner. You can specify an owner for a temporary procedure when:

    • the temporary procedure is created within a permanent stored procedure

    • the owner of the temporary and permanent procedure is the same

    To drop the owner of a temporary procedure, you must drop the temporary procedure first.

    Temporary stored procedures can be created and dropped when connected to a read-only database, and they cannot be external procedures.

    For example, the following temporary procedure drops the table called CustRank, if it exists. For this example, the procedure assumes that the table name is unique and can be referenced by the procedure creator without specifying the table owner:

    CREATE TEMPORARY PROCEDURE drop_table( IN @TableName char(128) )
        IF EXISTS  ( SELECT * FROM SYS.SYSTAB WHERE table_name = @TableName ) THEN
       EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DROP TABLE "' || @TableName || '"';
       MESSAGE 'Table "' || @TableName || '" dropped' to client;
        END IF;
    CALL drop_table( 'CustRank' );

  • RESULT clause   The RESULT clause declares the number and type of columns in the result set. The parenthesized list following the RESULT keyword defines the result column names and types. This information is returned by the embedded SQL DESCRIBE or by ODBC SQLDescribeCol when a CALL statement is being described. For a list of data types, see SQL data types.

    For more information about returning result sets from procedures, see Returning results from procedures.

    Some procedures can produce more than one result set, with different numbers of columns, depending on how they are executed. For example, the following procedure returns two columns under some circumstances, and one in others.

    CREATE PROCEDURE names( IN formal char(1))
       IF formal = 'n' THEN
          SELECT GivenName
          FROM Employees
          SELECT Surname, GivenName
          FROM Employees
       END IF

    Procedures with variable result sets must be written without a RESULT clause, or in Transact-SQL. Their use is subject to the following limitations:

    • Embedded SQL   You must DESCRIBE the procedure call after the cursor for the result set is opened, but before any rows are returned, to get the proper shape of result set. The CURSOR cursor-name clause on the DESCRIBE statement is required.

    • ODBC, OLE DB, ADO.NET   Variable result-set procedures can be used by applications using these interfaces. The proper description of the result sets is carried out by the driver or provider.

    • Open Client applications   Variable result-set procedures can be used by Open Client applications.

    If your procedure returns only one result set, you should use a RESULT clause. The presence of this clause prevents ODBC and Open Client applications from re-describing the result set after a cursor is open.

    To handle multiple result sets, ODBC must describe the currently executing cursor, not the procedure's defined result set. Therefore, ODBC does not always describe column names as defined in the RESULT clause of the procedure definition. To avoid this problem, use column aliases in the SELECT statement that generates the result set.

  • NO RESULT SET clause   Declares that no result set is returned by this procedure. This is useful when an external environment needs to know that a procedure does not return a result set.

  • SQL SECURITY clause   The SQL SECURITY clause defines whether the procedure is executed as the INVOKER (the user who is calling the procedure), or as the DEFINER (the user who owns the procedure). The default is DEFINER.

    When SQL SECURITY INVOKER is specified, more memory is used because annotation must be done for each user that calls the procedure. Also, when SQL SECURITY INVOKER is specified, name resolution is done as the invoker as well. Therefore, care should be taken to qualify all object names (tables, procedures, and so on) with their appropriate owner. For example, suppose user1 creates the following procedure:

    CREATE PROCEDURE user1.myProcedure()
       RESULT( columnA INT )
         SELECT columnA FROM table1;

    If user2 attempts to run this procedure and a table user2.table1 does not exist, a table lookup error results. Additionally, if a user2.table1 does exist, that table is used instead of the intended user1.table1. To prevent this situation, qualify the table reference in the statement (user1.table1, instead of just table1).

  • ON EXCEPTION RESUME clause   This clause enables Transact-SQL-like error handling to be used within a Watcom-SQL syntax procedure.

    If you use ON EXCEPTION RESUME, the procedure takes an action that depends on the setting of the on_tsql_error option. If on_tsql_error is set to Conditional (the default) the execution continues if the next statement handles the error; otherwise, it exits.

    Error-handling statements include the following:

    • IF
    • SELECT @variable =
    • CASE
    • LOOP
    • LEAVE
    • CALL
    • SIGNAL

    You should not use explicit error handling code with an ON EXCEPTION RESUME clause.

    See on_tsql_error option [compatibility].

  • AT location-string clause   Create a proxy stored procedure on the current database for a remote procedure specified by location-string. The AT clause supports the semicolon (;) as a field delimiter in location-string. If no semicolon is present, a period is the field delimiter. This allows file names and extensions to be used in the database and owner fields.

    Remote procedures accept input parameters up to 254 bytes in length, and return up to 254 characters in output variables.

    If a remote procedure can return a result set, even if it does not return one in all cases, then the local procedure definition must contain a RESULT clause.

    For information about remote servers, see CREATE SERVER statement. For information about using remote procedures, see Using remote procedure calls (RPCs).


The CREATE PROCEDURE statement creates a procedure in the database. Users with DBA authority can create procedures for other users by specifying an owner. A procedure is invoked with a CALL statement.

If a stored procedure returns a result set, it cannot also set output parameters or return a return value.

When referencing a temporary table from multiple procedures, a potential issue can arise if the temporary table definitions are inconsistent and statements referencing the table are cached. See Referencing temporary tables within procedures.


Must have RESOURCE authority, unless creating a temporary procedure.

Must have DBA authority for external procedures or to create a procedure for another user.

Side effects

Automatic commit.

See also
Standards and compatibility
  • SQL/2003   Persistent Stored Module feature. The syntax extensions for Java result sets are as specified in the optional J621 feature.


The following procedure uses a case statement to classify the results of a query.

CREATE PROCEDURE ProductType (IN product_ID INT, OUT type CHAR(10))
   DECLARE prod_name CHAR(20);
   SELECT name INTO prod_name FROM Products
   WHERE ID = product_ID;
   CASE prod_name
   WHEN 'Tee Shirt' THEN
      SET type = 'Shirt'
   WHEN 'Sweatshirt' THEN
      SET type = 'Shirt'
   WHEN 'Baseball Cap' THEN
      SET type = 'Hat'
   WHEN 'Visor' THEN
      SET type = 'Hat'
   WHEN 'Shorts' THEN
      SET type = 'Shorts'
      SET type = 'UNKNOWN'

The following example replaces the ProductType procedure created in the previous example. After replacing the procedure, the parameters for Tee Shirt and Sweatshirt are updated:

   DECLARE prod_name CHAR(20);
   SELECT name INTO prod_name FROM Products
   WHERE ID = product_ID;
   CASE prod_name
   WHEN 'Tee Shirt' THEN
      SET type = 'T Shirt'
   WHEN 'Sweatshirt' THEN
      SET type = 'Long Sleeve Shirt'
   WHEN 'Baseball Cap' THEN
      SET type = 'Hat'
   WHEN 'Visor' THEN
      SET type = 'Hat'
   WHEN 'Shorts' THEN
      SET type = 'Shorts'
      SET type = 'UNKNOWN'

The following procedure uses a cursor and loops over the rows of the cursor to return a single value.

CREATE PROCEDURE TopCustomer (OUT TopCompany CHAR(35), OUT TopValue INT)
   DECLARE err_notfound EXCEPTION
   FOR SQLSTATE '02000';
      SELECT CompanyName,
          CAST(SUM(SalesOrderItems.Quantity *
          Products.UnitPrice) AS INTEGER) VALUE
      FROM Customers
      LEFT OUTER JOIN SalesOrders
      LEFT OUTER JOIN SalesOrderItems
      LEFT OUTER JOIN Products
      GROUP BY CompanyName;
   DECLARE ThisValue INT;
   DECLARE ThisCompany CHAR(35);
   SET TopValue = 0;
   OPEN curThisCust;
      FETCH NEXT curThisCust
      INTO ThisCompany, ThisValue;
      IF SQLSTATE = err_notfound THEN
         LEAVE CustomerLoop;
      END IF;
      IF ThisValue > TopValue THEN
         SET TopValue = ThisValue;
         SET TopCompany = ThisCompany;
         END IF;
   END LOOP CustomerLoop;
   CLOSE curThisCust;