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SQL Anywhere 11.0.1 » SQL Anywhere Server - SQL Usage » Stored Procedures and Triggers » Using procedures, triggers, and batches » Errors and warnings in procedures and triggers


Using exception handlers in procedures and triggers

It is often desirable to intercept certain types of errors and handle them within a procedure or trigger, rather than pass the error back to the calling environment. This is done through the use of an exception handler.

You define an exception handler with the EXCEPTION part of a compound statement. See Using compound statements.

Whenever an error occurs in the compound statement, the exception handler executes. Unlike errors, warnings do not cause exception handling code to be executed. Exception handling code also executes if an error appears in a nested compound statement or in a procedure or trigger invoked anywhere within the compound statement.

An exception handler for the interrupt error SQL_INTERRUPT, SQLSTATE 57014 should only contain non-interruptible statements such as ROLLBACK and ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT. If the exception handler contains interruptible statements that are invoked when the connection is interrupted, the database server stops the exception handler at the first interruptible statement and returns the interrupt error.

The demonstration procedures used to illustrate exception handling are based on those used in Default error handling in procedures and triggers.

In this example, additional code handles the column not found error in the InnerProc procedure.


   MESSAGE 'Hello from OuterProc.' TO CLIENT;
   CALL InnerProc();
   MESSAGE 'SQLSTATE set to ',
      SQLSTATE,' in OuterProc.' TO CLIENT
   DECLARE column_not_found
   MESSAGE 'Hello from InnerProc.' TO CLIENT;
  SIGNAL column_not_found;
  MESSAGE 'Line following SIGNAL.' TO CLIENT;
      WHEN column_not_found THEN
      MESSAGE 'Column not found handling.' TO CLIENT;
      RESIGNAL ;

CALL OuterProc();

The Interactive SQL Messages tab then displays the following:

Hello from OuterProc.
Hello from InnerProc.
Column not found handling.
SQLSTATE set to 00000 in OuterProc.

The EXCEPTION clause declares the exception handler. The lines following EXCEPTION do not execute unless an error occurs. Each WHEN clause specifies an exception name (declared with a DECLARE statement) and the statement or statements to be executed in the event of that exception. The WHEN OTHERS THEN clause specifies the statement(s) to be executed when the exception that occurred does not appear in the preceding WHEN clauses.

In this example, the statement RESIGNAL passes the exception on to a higher-level exception handler. RESIGNAL is the default action if WHEN OTHERS THEN is not specified in an exception handler.

Additional notes
  • The EXCEPTION handler executes, rather than the lines following the SIGNAL statement in InnerProc.

  • As the error encountered was a column not found error, the MESSAGE statement included to handle the error executes, and SQLSTATE resets to zero (indicating no errors).

  • After the exception handling code executes, control passes back to OuterProc, which proceeds as if no error was encountered.

  • You should not use ON EXCEPTION RESUME together with explicit exception handling. The exception handling code is not executed if ON EXCEPTION RESUME is included.

  • If the error handling code for the column not found exception is simply a RESIGNAL statement, control passes back to the OuterProc procedure with SQLSTATE still set at the value 52003. This is just as if there were no error handling code in InnerProc. Since there is no error handling code in OuterProc, the procedure fails.

Exception handling and atomic compound statements

When an exception is handled inside a compound statement, the compound statement completes without an active exception and the changes before the exception are not reversed. This is true even for atomic compound statements. If an error occurs within an atomic compound statement and is explicitly handled, some, but not all, the statements in the atomic compound statement are executed.