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SQL Anywhere 12.0.0 » SQL Anywhere Server - SQL Reference » SQL language elements » Keywords


Reserved words

Some keywords in SQL are also reserved words. To use a reserved word in a SQL statement as an identifier, you must enclose it in double quotes. Many, but not all, the keywords that appear in SQL statements are reserved words. For example, you must use the following syntax to retrieve the contents of a table named SELECT.


SQL keywords are not case sensitive and the following words may appear in uppercase, lowercase, or any combination of the two. All strings that differ only in capitalization from one of the following words are reserved words.

You can also turn off keywords using the non_keywords option. See non_keywords option.

The reserved_keywords option turns on individual keywords that are disabled by default. See reserved_keywords option.

If you are using embedded SQL, you can use the sql_needs_quotes database library function to determine whether a string requires quotation marks. A string requires quotes if it is a reserved word or if it contains a character not ordinarily allowed in an identifier.

You can obtain a list of the reserved words using the sa_reserved_words system procedure. See sa_reserved_words system procedure.

The reserved SQL keywords in SQL Anywhere are:

add all alter and
any as asc attach
backup begin between bigint
binary bit bottom break
by call capability cascade
case cast char char_convert
character check checkpoint close
comment commit compressed conflict
connect constraint contains continue
convert create cross cube
current current_timestamp current_user cursor
date datetimeoffset dbspace deallocate
dec decimal declare default
delete deleting desc detach
distinct do double drop
dynamic else elseif encrypted
end endif escape except
exception exec execute existing
exists externlogin fetch first
float for force foreign
forward from full goto
grant group having holdlock
identified if in index
inner inout insensitive insert
inserting install instead int
integer integrated intersect into
is isolation join kerberos
key lateral left like
limit lock login long
match membership merge message
mode modify natural nchar
new no noholdlock not
notify null numeric nvarchar
of off on open
openstring openxml option options
or order others out
outer over passthrough precision
prepare primary print privileges
proc procedure publication raiserror
readtext real reference references
refresh release remote remove
rename reorganize resource restore
restrict return revoke right
rollback rollup save savepoint
scroll select sensitive session
set setuser share smallint
some spatial sqlcode sqlstate
start stop subtrans subtransaction
synchronize table temporary then
time timestamp tinyint to
top tran treat trigger
truncate tsequal unbounded union
unique uniqueidentifier unknown unsigned
update updating user using
validate values varbinary varbit
varchar variable varying view
wait waitfor when where
while window with within
work writetext xml
 See also